I have a deal with my kids that if I read a book, they have to read one also, and vice versa. The youngest one likes to watch me play command and is getting to know her Burkes from her Ticonderogas. Shes a daddys girl percent! It was a pretty quick and easy intro into the basics of the kind game Command is.
- Get Access - Consciousness thought;
- Wallaby Track.
- Works Cited | Keywords for Asian American Studies.
If I was to make a college degree path, this would be the book, with Fleet Tactics and Coastal Combat the level textbook, with everything else in between in theater-oriented reading lists. Brazo zulu for the list, planker. Nice collection mate mine are mainly based around ww2 I have loads and loads of books on that era. Unfortunately they have never release it on any other platform no video, DVD or blu ray. If they ever did id recommend you watch it. I recently got hold of a book which is a first of a huge series of books.
There are loads of books by these people and they are really useful for info and stats. Again nice collection mate. Version 2 of this list is coming soon. Is it that one? It is from the Book I have though nice find I'm going to watch it again bloody great documentry. I'd love to own it. In brief, the DANHES study was carried out in 13 different municipalities in —, and oral examinations were performed in — A total of 76, individuals participated in the questionnaire survey concerning general health, and 18, had a general medical examination performed.
In addition to the general medical examination, 4, subjects had a dental examination performed, of which 4, delivered a stimulated saliva sample and 4, answered a questionnaire concerning self-perceived oral health. All participants received written information prior to participation and signed informed consent. The study was approved by the regional ethical committee H-C and reported to the Danish data authority Population characteristics are presented in Table 1 , and a flowchart depicting the sample selection strategy is shown in Fig.
Finally, a total of participants with low levels of oral diseases from 12 different municipalities were included in this study. Flowchart of sample selection and group establishment. Table 1 Population characteristics. In brief, the oral examination was performed by 3 dental hygienists and 3 dental nurses working in pairs.
The periodontal examination was performed in 2 randomly selected quadrants, and caries was registered full-mouth. Caries was scored as a clinically manifested lesion present on surface and tooth levels. No information from dental radiographs was included in this study. Stimulated saliva samples were collected by a dental hygienist according to a standardized protocol: the participant was instructed to flush thoroughly and subsequently chew for 1 minute on 1 gram of paraffin gum until a solid bolus was formed. DNA isolation from saliva samples was performed according to the manufacturer's guidelines Roche, Mannheim, Germany.
The data used in this study were collected through a medical examination, performed by accredited medical personal, and a self-reported questionnaire.
Manchester Memoirs vol by Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society - Issuu
The medical examination and the questionnaire gathered information about the physical status and lifestyle-related factors of the participants. Age was registered in whole years at the time point of questionnaire answering. Height was recorded in centimeters cm , and weight was recorded in kilograms kg.
Smoking status was recorded by questionnaire, and the probands were grouped in current smokers and non-smokers. Dietary data were collected using an Internet-based, items food frequency questionnaire FFQ , that included 32 photoseries of food portions to quantify portion sizes. The amount of daily energy originating from fat, protein, and carbohydrates was calculated using the Foodcalc program. In addition, the proportion of carbohydrates consisting of added sugar was determined. Information concerning the socioeconomic status of the 12 municipalities was gathered by information from Denmark's statistics using the parameters: average income per year , percentage of unemployed inhabitants, and percentage of inhabitants with a non-western citizenship.
In addition, average level of education International Standard Classification of Education, levels 1—6 was calculated using individual educational information gathered from the questionnaire. In each of the four categories, the municipalities were scored from 1 to 12 1 being the best ranked municipality and the values were added theoretical range 4— The influence of each of the following variables on the bacterial profile of saliva was tested separately: age, gender, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, proportion of energy originating from fat, proportion of energy origination from protein, and proportion of energy originating from carbohydrates and proportion of carbohydrates originating from added sugar.
Based on each of the variables, the total cohort of was divided into quintiles of 58 individuals, and the top quintile was compared to the bottom quintile. The 12 municipalities were ranked socioeconomically from 1 to 12 based on each of the 4 socioeconomic parameters and the values added up. A total of participants from 5 municipalities constituted a subgroup of high socioeconomic status 16—19 points that was compared to a subgroup of participants from 7 municipalities with low socioeconomic status 26—44 points Fig.
Differences in hybridization patterns were analyzed using the Mann—Whitney test, and differences in data between groups were compared with unpaired t -test. More powerful procedures for multiple significance testing. Stat Med. Principal component analysis was used for visualization through data reduction of patterns in this n -dimensional dataset.
TM4 microarray software suite. Methods Enzymol.
Population characteristics are presented in Table 1. In samples from participants with low levels of oral diseases, we observed positive identification for targets of probes. The number of hits per sample was No statistical differences were found in number of targets identified, mean probes per sample, or phylogenetic distribution between subgroups divided on the basis of the parameters investigated data not shown.
A complete list of targets identified is presented in the Supplementary file. In general, the targets most frequently identified were also those present at the highest levels mean HOMIM-value.
Principal component analysis displayed clustering of the 21 samples from smokers combined with a random distribution of the samples from non-smokers Fig. Principal component analysis of smoking status. When comparing the high socioeconomic status subgroup to the low socioeconomic status subgroup, highly significant differences were observed, as 20 bacterial probes were present with a different frequency between subgroups.
Item is in your Cart
Seventeen probes 9 recognizing a bacterial taxon and 8 recognizing a bacterial cluster were associated with the high socioeconomic status subgroup, and three 1 identifying a bacterial taxon and 2 identifying a bacterial cluster were associated with the low socioeconomic subgroup. In addition, 25 bacterial probes were identified at different levels in the 2 subgroups. Twenty-two probes 10 recognizing a bacterial taxon and 12 recognizing a bacterial cluster were more associated with the high socioeconomic status subgroup, and 3 1 identifying a bacterial taxon and 2 identifying a bacterial cluster were associated with the low socioeconomic status subgroup.
As can be observed from Fig. Black bars: low socioeconomic status subgroup.
Diagnosing Contact Processes from their Outcomes: The Importance of Life Stages
White bars: high socioeconomic status subgroup. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the bacterial saliva profiles in individuals with low levels of oral diseases were associated with differences in diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status.
By comparison of high-throughput data collected using the HOMIM with available data from the DANHES, we were able to show that the bacterial saliva profile associated with low levels of oral diseases was independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and socioeconomic status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to combine high-throughput microbiologic information with comprehensive data, characterizing the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva in individuals with low levels of oral diseases.
The bacterial profile described in this study was, in spite of high diversity, largely dominated by the phylum of Firmicutes , expressed by a massive probe signal representing Streptococcus and Veillonella species. These findings are in line with studies using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing of saliva samples showing that the microbial profile of saliva in oral health resembles the profiles found on the tongue, the tonsils, and the throat and is characterized by high numbers of Firmicutes 25 Nasidze I , Li J , Quinque D , Tang K , Stoneking M.
Using molecular methods, putative periodontal pathogens such as P. Detection of multiple pathogenic species in saliva is associated with periodontal infection in adults. Microbial community succession on developing lesions on human enamel. J Oral Microbiol.